Friday, October 14, 2016

Mafia Game History

Wizards of the Coast has totally obliterated all of the old discussion boards and it appears, even it's archives.

Saved my old game list, posting it here for posterity.

Mafia Games 2010-2012
Submitted by PeregrineV 4 years ago
Ongoing games & signups:
Completed games:
[Basic#5]-Bandit Mafia, Town Doc, NK night2, Town Lost
Dreven City:A Wild West Mafia [Int+]: Town Vanilla*, lynched day4(2062), Town Won  (Design File)
Tales of Symphonia Mafia[Int+]: Town Gigilo*, lynched day2(888), Town Won
YMtC:Summit of Null Moon II[Int+]: Town Planeswalker, died day7, Town Lost
Anime Mafia[MINI]: Town Charasmatic, NK night2, Town Won (Design File)
Economic Crisis on Pandora[MINI]: Town Fountain Watch, Town Won (Flawless!)
Touhou Mafia IV: Border Collapse[PC]: Town HistoryChanger,died day6, Town Lost
You Will Hate Being Town Mafia[MINI]: Mafia Mother Brain, Mafia Won
Resistance v2.0: Resistance, Town Won
eBay Mafia: Town, dayvig day1, Town Lost
InFamous Mafia[Beginner]: Town Voteblocker*, lynched day3 (585), Town Lost
Kingmaker: Town, Town Won
Newbie 1077: Town, Town Lost
Full Metal Alchemist[Int]: Mafia, vigged night2, Mafia Lost
Sunflowers for Ragnarokio[PC]: Town Naive Cop, lynched day6, Town Won
True Blood Mafia[MINI]: Town Mason Lovers, NK Day3, Town Lost
Cold War Mafia: Town*, died day7, Town Lost
Elite Scumhunting Unit[MINI]: Town, lynched day3, Town Won
Time Traveler Mafia: Town, NK cycle 4, Town Won
Touhou Mafia: Subterranean Animism[MINI]: Town Doctor, NK night2, Town Lost
My Mafia Diary[Int+]: Town Mason, died day6, Town Lost
Chuck Mafia: Season 1: Town, lynched day3, Town Won
Paper Mario Mafia[MINI]: Mafia Pariah, lynched day2, Mafia Won
American Dad Mafia: Town Miller, lynched day3, Town Won
Mini 1157: Witch-Hunt Nightless: Mafia*, Mafia Lost
Stuff on My Desk Mafia [MINI]: Town Insomniac, NK night0, Town Lost
Razorborne Mafia [Basic]: Back-up Mod, Mafia Won
Small Town Mafia [Int]: Pigsticker Mafia Doc*, died day4, Pigsticker Mafia Lost
Wizards at the Sorcerors Den: Mafia Artificer, killed night3, Mafia Lost
Camp Crystal Lake [Int]: Town, lynched day2, Town Lost
Order of the Chaos Rose Mafia [MINI]: Town Martyr, died day4, Town Lost
Battelstar Galactica Mafia: Mafia Rolecop*, Mafia Won
[MINI 1168] Philosophy Mafia: Town*, dayvig day3, Town Lost
You Pick Your Role Mafia: Town Bulletproof, died day3, Town Lost
Planet of Hats Mafia [LARGE NY 1133]: Town Doc, NK night6, Town Lost
Into Africa Mafia: Town, dayvig day1, Town Won
Return to Gambits Mafia: Town Insane Cop*, NK night2, Town Lost
Lemming Mafia: Town, lynched day1, Town Lost
A Certain Magical Mafia[INT]: Town Networker, bombed day3, Town Won
[MINI 1199] Plissken's Pit: Mafia Goon, Mafia Won (Flawless!)
Mafia of Ancient Egypt [Mini]: Town, lynched day1, Town Won
Marketplace Mafia: Town, lynched day2, Town Lost
Mass Effect Mafia: Mafia Gifter, Draw leaning to Mafia Won
TV Show Mafia: Town, lynched day9, Town Lost
Simpsons Mafia [PC]: Town Voteblocker, NK night2, Town Lost
The Siege of Balginor [Real Adventures]: Town Champion, Day JOAT, Town Won
Toy Story Mafia: Town, NK day7, Town Lost
Dr. Who Mafia [MINI]: Mafia Godfather*, Mafia Won

Repo! the Genetic Mafia: Town, lynched day1, Town Lost
Worse Idea Mafia 4:SKs On the Loose: Town Child, Town Won
Death at a Funeral Mafia: Town, Town 1-shot Strongman Vig, Cancelled
PictoMafia III [MINI 1212]: Town*, died day4, Town Lost
Box Office Mafia: Town Neighborizer, died day7, Town Lost
Serenity (aka Firefly) Mafia: Town 1-shot Doc, nk n3, Town Lost
Lord of the Rings Mafia: Mafia Godfather, Mafia Won (Flawless!)
Imperishable Night Mafia: Town Enhancer, lynched day1, Town Lost
Zombie Com Mafia: Town Neighborizing Shieldee, Cancelled leaning toward Town Won
Brightest Day Mafia: Town Enhancer*, vigged n2, Town Won
Mafia Dating Game Show 2: Town, lynched day2, Town Lost
NY140: Powerrox's Large Normal: Town, NK n4, Town Lost
8p Swift Mafia: Town, NK n1, Town Lost
Bastardmind of Sin: Town Cop, vigged day 8, Town Won
Children of Hurin Mafia: Town, lynched day1, Town Won
Back to the Future Mafia: Town Doctor, Town Won (Flawless!)
Internet Stars Mafia[MINI]: Mafia Bulletproof, Mafia Won (Flawless!)
Disney Mafia [Basic #7]: Town, lynched day2, Town Lost
Imperial Intrigue Mafia: Mafia Traitor, NK night5, Mafia Lost
Mini 1245: Trouble in Paradise: Moderator, Town Won
Mini 1249: Community Paintball Mafia: Town, died day5, Town Lost
Mini 1247: Auction Mafia: Town, Cancelled
Camn's Tempermental Mafia: Mafia Ninja, Mafia Won
Mini 1249: RPG Mafia: Town Barbarian Mystic, lynched day4, Town Lost
Open 335: Gurgi EC8: Town*, Town Won
TV UPick Mafia: Town FBI Agent, endgamed, Town Lost
Dram's Bastard Mafia: Mafia Redirector, lynched day2, Mafia Won
Secret Society Mafia: Town tracker, nk night8, Town Lost
[Basic#8] Revolutionary War Mafia: Moderator, Mafia Won
Magic the Gathering: Innistrad Edition Mafia: Town Test Subject, NK night4, Town Won
Mythos Mafia: Town Miller, endgamed, Town Lost
Star Wars Mafia- Invitational: Town Motivator, lynched day3, ongoing
: Town, endgamed, town lost but guessed right

Mini 1272: Mafia Along the Boardwalk: Mafia Goon, lynched day4, Mafia Won

Arrested Development Mafia: Town, endgamed, Town Lost

Mini 1270 - Stargate SG-1 Mafia: Town Mason, lynched day1, Town Lost

NY 143: Mafia on the Gulf Coast: Town, Town Won

Cyclic Experimentation Set x02: Town, lynched day3, Town Lost

War in Heaven III Mafia: Town Cherub, Cancelled, (but I think town won!)

100 Boxes Mafia: Mafia**, Cancelled

100 Boxes Mafia (Reboot): Town**, self-exploded n1, Town Lost

Mini 1282: Mafia*, lynched day5, Mafia Lost

Mini 1293: New Age Mafia: Town, Town Won

Playground Mafia: Mafia Won, Moderator

DC Universe Mafia: Town (Flash), NK n1, Town Lost

Touhou 12:Undefined Mafia[Mini]: Town, lynched day2
: Town, Town Lost++

RPG Mafia II: Battle for Malura: Mafia Angel, Cancelled

Touhou 13: Yoshi's Revenge[Mini]: Town Hypnotist, Town Lost

Playground Mafia Mini (no relation): Mafia, Cancelled

Week Long Mafia: Moderator, Cancelled

Mafia With the Kittens: Town, lynched day3, Town Lost
Newbie 1214: Town Won, Moderator
Star Wars Mafia: Town (Count Dooku), lynched day1, Town Won

Blood Bowl Mafia: Mafia, lynched day3, Mafia Won

Polite Mafia: Mafia, lynched day 4, Mafia Won

Mini 1320: Redwall Mafia: Town Badger. killed night2, Town Lost

Mini 1324: Mostly Mute Martyr Mafia Haiku Redux: Town, Town Won

Paranoia Mafia: Town Oracle, lynched day1, Town Lost

Good vs Evil, Law vs Chaos Mafia: Town (LG) Paladin, killed night4, Town Won

Dwarf Fortress Mafia[MINI]: Town Jailkeeper, bombed day2, Town Lost

League Mafia: Town, Town Won

Newbie 1221: Town Jailkeeper*, killed night3, Town Won

Team Mafia (Closed Normal): Town 1-shot neighborizer, lynched day3, Town Lost

Game of the Year: Town, lynched day6, Town Won

Heroes of Comedy: Town, Town Lost

Experimental Role Mafia: Town*, killed night1, Town Won

Mini 1332: Town Neighbor, lynched day2, Town Lost

Politics Mafia: Town Odd-Night Cop, killed n6, Town Lost++

Newbie 1223: Frogs & Toads Mafia: Town Won, Moderator

Newbie 1214: Town Won, Moderator

#Pony Mafia: Mafia Insomniac, lynched day3, Mafia Lost

Mafia Behind the Maiden: Town***, Town Lost

Open 410: Trouble in Paradise: Mafia, Mafia lost

Mini 1344: Murder on the HMS Regalia: Town****, Town Lost

Mini 1350: Spartacus Blood & Sand Mafia: Barca, Beat of Carthage, Cancelled

Mini 1348: Dragon Ball Z Mafia: Town, Town Lost

Words with Scum Mafia: Town, Town Lost

Lovers Mafia: Town Lover*, committed suicide day5, Town Won

My Little Pony Mafia: Town 1-shot bulletproofer, killed n1, Town Lost

Newbie 1254: Mars is for Martians: Moderator, Mafia Won

Otherworld Mafia (Aia & Vasta): Town, lynched day3, Town Won

I Love the 90s Cartoons Mafia: Mafia Inventor, lynched day 11, Mafia Won

New Orchard Mafia: Town, lynched day2, Cancelled, Personal Win

Judge, Jury & Executioner: ongoing***, -replaced out-, Town Lost

Literal Music Video Mafia: Town Dead-voter, lynched day4, Town Won

Mafia in La-La Land: Town, killed n5, Town Lost

WWE Attitude Era 2.0 Mafia: Town Tracker, killed n2, Town Lost

Project Turbine Mafia (Eden Sol & Point Sol): Back-up Moderator, Mafia Won

Mini 1374 - Steam Library Madness Mafia: Town Neighborizer, endgamed, Town Lost
Mini 1382 - The Mystery at Lake Village: Town, Town Won

NY159: RUST Mafia: Town, vigged n3, Town Won

Discworld Mafia: Town Enabling Neighbor, lynched day 4, Town Won
Bleach Mafia: Town, lynched d1, Town Lost

Marketplace Mafia II: Town, Town Won

Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Legacy: Town, Harry Potter VT, killed day4, Town Lost

Vampire Mafia: The Gehenna: Town, Town Won

Return to Ravnica (Limited) Promo: Mafia Bulletproof, lynched day5, Mafia Lost

MTG Mafia 2.5: Town doc, lynched d1, Draw

Author Mafia*****: Town 1-shot neighborizor, Town Won

Inbetweeners Mafia: Town, Town Lost

Mini 1389: The Agency Mafia: CIA Mafia Won, Moderator

Mini 1397: War is Hell: Town, lynched d1, Town Lost

You Could Be Anyone Mafia: Town Lie Detector, lynched day 7, Town Lost

Mini 1399: Buckshot Mafia: Town, Town Won

Px2 2012 Invitational: Town, Town Won

Mini 1407: Town****, Town Lost

* replaced in
** as hydra Birds of Pro
*** as hydra Teleporting Speed Hippos
****force replaced out
*****As an alt
++ Mod error
- See more at:

Thursday, June 23, 2016

Why British Singers Lose Their Accents When Singing

Why British Singers Lose Their Accents When Singing:

'via Blog this'

I always wondered. This kind of explains it.


Mick Jagger, Elton John, Rod Stewart, Ed Sheeran, Phil Collins and George Michael all grew up in or near London and have very recognizably British accents. Once on stage, they sing like someone who grew up in New England rather than old. Yet another example is Adele, who has a lovely speaking voice, a very heavy cockney accent, yet her singing pipes do not indicate her dialect. One might argue that Adele’s speaking and singing voices were two different people if listening without visuals. Going beyond the British, we see the same thing with other non-American musicians, such as the Swedish band ABBA, and many others singing in English, yet from various places around the world. It seems like no matter where you’re from, if you’re singing in English, you’re probably singing with an American accent, unless you’re actively trying to retain your native accent, which some groups do.
There are several reasons we notice accents ‘disappearing’ in song, and why those singing accents seem to default to “American”. In a nutshell, it has a lot to do with phonetics, the pace at which they sing and speak, and the air pressure from one’s vocal chords. As far as why “American” and not some other accent, it’s simply because the generic “American” accent is fairly neutral. Even American singers, if they have, for instance, a strong “New Yorker” or perhaps a “Hillbilly” accent, will also tend to lose their specific accent, gravitating more towards neutral English, unless they are actively trying not to, as many Country singers might.
For the specific details, we’ll turn to linguist and author, David Crystal, from Northern Ireland. According to Crystal, a song’s melody cancels out the intonations of speech, followed by the beat of the music cancelling out the rhythm of speech. Once this takes place, singers are forced to stress syllables as they are accented in the music, which forces singers to elongate their vowels. Singers who speak with an accent, but sing it without, aren’t trying to throw their voice to be deceptive or to appeal to a different market; they are simply singing in a way that naturally comes easiest, which happens to be a more neutral way of speaking, which also just so happens to be the core of what many people consider an “American” accent.
To put it in another way, it’s the pace of the music that affects the pace of the singer’s delivery. A person’s accent is easily detectable when they are speaking at normal speed. When singing, the pace is often slower. Words are drawn out and more powerfully pronounced and the accent becomes more neutral.
Another factor is that the air pressure we use to make sounds is much greater when we sing. Those who sing have to learn to breathe correctly to sustain notes for the right amount of time, and singing requires the air passages to expand and become larger. This changes the quality of the sound. As a result, regional accents can disappear because syllables are stretched out and stresses fall differently than in normal speech. So, once again, this all adds up to singing accents becoming more neutral.
So at this point, you might be wondering if the musicians actually know they are losing their accents when they sing. Working in radio, I’ve contemplated how accents seem to disappear over my 20-year career. Keith Urban isn’t British, though fans of the Aussie singer swoon over his speaking voice (many women could listen to him read the dictionary) and have noticed that he sounds more American when he sings. I have spoken to Keith a few times and decided the good-natured Keith wouldn’t mind me posing the question: How is it you sing differently than you talk? (Certainly not wanting to offend Keith, I began with a few genuine compliments admiring his genius guitar skills.) He took it all in stride, laughed, then responded, ‘I don’t know.’ (More like kneh-owww) ‘Good question,’ he said. Though I don’t think I have an accent. I think you do!’ It’s quite reasonable to believe that a Hoosier like me sounds a bit hillbilly to a guy from down under. Keith could not really explain the mystery behind it, and instead went on to explain why he was wearing black toenail polish the last time I chatted him up in person. (His wife, Nicole, has since been his inspiration to stop, he says.) So it would seem, that at least with this sample size of one, the artist in question is not aware of any accent change when he sings. So what about others?
Andy Gibson, a New Zealand researcher at AUT’s University Institute of Culture, Discourse & Communication also believes the change in accent between speaking and singing is not a deliberate one, nor are artists even aware of the change. A 2010 study he conducted of singers with speaking accents showed indeed that they were not aware that they sounded any different; they felt they were singing naturally. Crystal says it is unusual for a singer to hold a regional accent through an entire song, resulting in what he calls ‘mixed accents’ for most.
And then there’s Kate Nash, the anti-norm. The English-singing sensation was an unknown until Lily Allen mentioned her on a MySpace page and now she boasts more than 100,000 followers on twitter. She didn’t know she had talent until she picked up her first guitar two years ago, and the rest is history. Nash has garnered success on the music charts, accent and all, and flat out refuses to even attempt to sing with an American accent. She makes no apologies for her background and even themes her lyrics toward an English audience. She is as English as tea in the afternoon and proud of bucking the trend that so many British artists seem to follow, whether intentionally, or more likely in most cases, not.
Bonus Facts:
  • Eeyore’s name is based off the British Cockney dialect version of the phrase “hee-haw”.
  • The guy who did the voice for Optimus Prime also did the voice for Eeyore and was the first person to voice Nintendo’s Mario character.
  • Similar to how their are numerous accents within the generic “American” accent, it’s not quite accurate to simply say “British accent”. There are quite a few British accents- an amazing amount actually, particularly considering the entire UK could fit into Texas, and England itself is only about the size of Alabama. A few of the most common “British accents” out there include: Cockney (which was butchered by Dick Van Dyke in Mary Poppins), Estuary English (Southeast British), West Country (Southwest British), Midlands English, Northern England English, Geordie, and Welsh English, among many others.

Friday, February 5, 2016

Angie Tribeca - Season 1

Found a great show on TBS. They put out all of season 1 at one time, so I was able to binge watch it, but it definitely left me wanting more.

Monday, August 24, 2015

Early clue to why some children may have reading woes -

Early clue to why some children may have reading woes -

'via Blog this'

Early clue to why some children may have reading woes

This photo provided by the Auditory Neuroscience Lab, Northwestern University, shows scalp electrodes to pick up how children's brains react to sounds such as speech in a noisy background. New research suggests it may be possible to predict which preschoolers will struggle to read, and it has to do with how they decipher speech when it's noisy.

This photo provided by the Auditory Neuroscience Lab, Northwestern University, shows scalp electrodes to pick up how children's brains react to sounds such as speech in a noisy background. New research suggests it may be possible to predict which preschoolers will struggle to read, and it has to do with how they decipher speech when it's noisy.
Photo courtesy of Auditory Neuroscience Lab, Northwestern University

Associated PressBy Lauran Neergaard
AP Medical Writer

WASHINGTON -- New research suggests it may be possible to predict which preschoolers will struggle to read -- and it has to do with how the brain deciphers speech when it's noisy.
Scientists are looking for ways to tell, as young as possible, when children are at risk for later learning difficulties so they can get early interventions.
There are some simple pre-reading assessments for preschoolers. But Northwestern University researchers went further and analyzed brain waves of children as young as 3.
How well youngsters' brains recognize specific sounds -- consonants -- amid background noise can help identify who is more likely to have trouble with reading development, the team reported recently in the journal PLOS Biology.
If the approach pans out, it may provide "a biological looking glass," said study senior author Nina Kraus, director of Northwestern's Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory.
"If you know you have a 3-year-old at risk, you can as soon as possible begin to enrich their life in sound so that you don't lose those crucial early developmental years."
Connecting sound to meaning is a key foundation for reading. For example, preschoolers who can match sounds to letters earlier go on to read more easily.
Auditory processing is part of that pre-reading development: If your brain is slower to distinguish a "D" from a "B" sound, for example, then recognizing words and piecing together sentences could be affected, too.
What does noise have to do with it?
It stresses the system, as the brain has to tune out competing sounds to selectively focus, in just fractions of milliseconds. And consonants are more vulnerable to noise than vowels, which tend to be louder and longer, Kraus explained.
"Hearing in noise is arguably one of the most computationally difficult things we ask our brain to do," she said.
The new study used an EEG to directly measure the brain's response to sound, attaching electrodes to children's scalps and recording the patterns of electric activity as nerve cells fired.
The youngsters sat still to watch a video of their choice, listening to the soundtrack in one ear while an earpiece in the other periodically piped in the sound "dah" superimposed over a babble of talking.
Measuring how the brain's circuitry responded, the team developed a model to predict children's performance on early literacy tests. Then they did a series of experiments with 112 kids between the ages of 3 and 14.
The 30-minute test predicted how well 3-year-olds performed a language-development skill and how those same youngsters fared a year later on several standard pre-reading assessments, the team reported. Time will tell how well those children eventually read.
But Kraus' team also tested older children -- and the EEG scores correlated with their current reading competence in school, and even flagged a small number who'd been diagnosed with learning disabilities.
Oral language exposure is one of the drivers of reading development, and the study is part of a broader push to find ways to spot problem signs early, said Brett Miller, who oversees reading disabilities research at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, which helped fund the work.
But don't expect EEGs for preschoolers any time soon. While the machines are common among brain specialists, this particular use is complicated and expensive, and further research is necessary, Kraus cautioned.
Her ultimate goal is to test how a child's brain processes sound even younger, maybe one day as a part of the routine newborn hearing screening.

Wednesday, August 5, 2015

How Stress & Learning Affect the Brain

The Neuroscience Behind Stress and Learning | Edutopia:

'via Blog this'


By Judy Willis, MD

The realities of standardized tests and increasingly structured, if not synchronized, curriculum continue to build classroom stress levels. Neuroimaging research reveals the disturbances in the brain's learning circuits and neurotransmitters that accompany stressful learning environments. The neuroscientific research about learning has revealed the negative impact of stress and anxiety and the qualitative improvement of the brain circuitry involved in memory and executive function that accompanies positive motivation and engagement.

The Proven Effects of Positive Motivation

Thankfully, this information has led to the development of brain-compatible strategies to help students through the bleak terrain created by some of the current trends imposed by the Common Core State Standards and similar mandates. With brain-based teaching strategies that reduce classroom anxiety and increase student connection to their lessons, educators can help students learn more effectively.
In the past two decades, neuroimaging and brain-mapping research have provided objective support to the student-centered educational model. This brain research demonstrates that superior learning takes place when classroom experiences are relevant to students' lives, interests, and experiences. Lessons can be stimulating and challenging without being intimidating, and the increasing curriculum requirements can be achieved without stress, anxiety, boredom, and alienation as the pervasive emotions of the school day.
During my 15 years of practicing adult and child neurology with neuroimaging and brain mapping as part of my diagnostic tool kit, I worked with children and adults with brain function disorders, including learning differences. When I then returned to university to obtain my credential and Masters of Education degree, these familiar neuroimaging tools had become available to education researchers. Their widespread use in schools and classrooms globally has yet to occur.
This brain research demonstrates that superior learning takes place when classroom experiences are motivating and engaging. Positive motivation impacts brain metabolism, conduction of nerve impulses through the memory areas, and the release of neurotransmitters that increase executive function and attention. Relevant lessons help students feel that they are partners in their education, and they are engaged and motivated.
We live in a stressful world and troubled times, and that is not supposed to be the way for children to grow up. Schools can be the safe haven where academic practices and classroom strategies provide children with emotional comfort and pleasure as well as knowledge. When teachers use strategies to reduce stress and build a positive emotional environment, students gain emotional resilience and learn more efficiently and at higher levels of cognition.

Neuroimaging and EEG Studies

Studies of electrical activity (EEG or brain waves) and metabolic activity (from specialized brain scans measuring glucose or oxygen use and blood flow) show the synchronization of brain activity as information passes from the sensory input processing areas of the somatosensory cortex to the reticular activating and limbic systems. For example, bursts of brain activity from the somatosensory cortex are followed milliseconds later by bursts of electrical activity in the hippocampus, amygdala, and then the other parts of the limbic system. This data from one of the most exciting areas of brain-based learning research gives us a way to see which techniques and strategies stimulate or impede communication between the parts of the brain when information is processed and stored. In other words, properly applied, we can identify and remove barriers to student understanding!
The amygdala is part of limbic system in the temporal lobe. It was first believed to function as a brain center for responding primarily to anxiety and fear. Indeed, when the amygdala senses threat, it becomes over-activated. In students, these neuroimaging findings in the amygdala are seen with feelings of helplessness and anxiety. When the amygdala is in this state of stress-induced over-activation, new sensory information cannot pass through it to access the memory and association circuits.
This is the actual neuroimaging visualization of what has been called theaffective filter by Stephen Krashen and others. This term describes an emotional state of stress in students during which they are not responsive to learning and storing new information. What is now evident on brain scans during times of stress is objective physical evidence of this affective filter. With such evidence-based research, the affective filter theories cannot be disparaged as "feel-good education" or an "excuse to coddle students" -- if students are stressed out, the information cannot get in. This is a matter of science.
This affective state occurs when students feel alienated from their academic experience and anxious about their lack of understanding. Consider the example of the decodable "books" used in phonics-heavy reading instruction. These are not engaging and motivating. They are usually not relevant to the students' lives because their goal is to include words that can be decoded based on the lesson. Decodability is often at the expense of authentic meaning to the child. Reading becomes tedious and, for some children, confusing and anxiety-provoking. In this state, there is reduced passage of information through the neural pathways from the amygdala to higher cognitive centers of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, where information is processed, associated, and stored for later retrieval and executive functioning.
Additional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala, hippocampus, and the rest of the limbic system, along with measurement of dopamine and other brain chemical transmitters during the learning process, reveal that students' comfort level has critical impact on information transmission and storage in the brain. The factors that have been found to affect this comfort level such as self-confidence, trust and positive feelings for teachers, and supportive classroom and school communities are directly related to the state of mind compatible with the most successful learning, remembering, and higher-order thinking.

The Power of Joyful Learning

The highest-level executive thinking, making connections, and "aha" moments of insight and creative innovation are more likely to occur in an atmosphere of what Alfie Kohn calls exuberant discovery, where students of all ages retain that kindergarten enthusiasm of embracing each day with the joy of learning. With current research and data in the field of neuroscience, we see growing opportunities to coordinate the design of curriculum, instruction, and assessment in ways that will reflect these incredible discoveries.
Joy and enthusiasm are absolutely essential for learning to happen -- literally, scientifically, as a matter of fact and research. Shouldn't it be our challenge and opportunity to design learning that embraces these ingredients?